no images were foundA “standard” vaccination program for all horses does not exist. The American Association of Equine Practitioners has developed a list of Core or recommended vaccines for each horse. Other vaccines are administered on a case by case basis depending on the risk of exposure to theses diseases.
- Tetanus – an often fatal disease caused by a potent neurotoxin from the anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium tetani.
- Eastern/Western Equine Encephalitis – a neurologic disease caused by a virus which can be transmitted by mosquitoes. Typically 90% of Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) cases die from the disease.
- Rabies – an infrequently encountered neurologic disease of horses. While the incidence of rabies in horses is low, the disease is fatal and has considerable public health significance.
- West Nile Virus – A neurologic disease of horses typically spread from one infected animal to another by biting flies or mosquitos. Horses represent 96.9% of all non-human mammalian cases of WNV disease.
Equine Influenza (Flu), Rhinopneumonitis (Rhino), Strangles, Potomac Horse Fever, Botulism
There are risks with vaccination and each individual situation requires evaluation based on the following criteria:
- Risk of disease (anticipated exposure, environmental factors, geographic factors, age, breed, use, and sex of the horse)
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- Consequences of the disease
- Anticipated effectiveness of the selected product(s)
- Potential for adverse reactions to a vaccine(s)
- Cost of immunization (time, labor and vaccine costs) vs. potential cost of disease (time out of competition; impact of movement restrictions imposed in order to control an outbreak of contagious disease; labor and medication if, or when, horses develop clinical disease and require treatment, or loss of life.)
A good vaccination program is always recommended, however, it is important to realize that:
- Vaccination alone, in the absence of good management practices directed at infection control, is not sufficient for the prevention of infectious disease.
- Vaccination serves to minimize the risks of infection but cannot prevent disease in all circumstances.
- The primary series of vaccines and booster doses should be appropriately administered prior to likely exposure.
- Each horse in a population is not protected to an equal degree nor for an equal duration following vaccination.
- Protection is not immediately afforded the patient after administration of a vaccine that is designed to induce active immunity. In most instances, a priming series of multiple doses of a vaccine must be administered initially for that vaccine to induce protective active immunity.
- All horses in a herd should be vaccinated at intervals based on the professional opinion of the attending veterinarian